Some people may think that dental implant operation is the outcome of the modern medical technology development, however, centuries ago, people were trying to make reparations for those missing teeth, by implanting teeth, both according to the knowledge of the era, and the first to attempt making reparations to compensate lost teeth are the Pharaohs. Archaeological discoveries in the history of ancient Egypt 2,000 years ago found that ancient Egyptians knew the process of implanting teeth, where pendants made of gold and precious metals were found in some Egyptian mummies, in addition to many of the treatments applied to teeth, which indicate the human attempts in that era of compensation of missing teeth, Also in ancient China were found 4000 years ago, bamboo pegs are carved and used in bones to replace lost teeth as a kind of dental implants, The people of Babylon were excelled in it, also the ancient American Indians and the Maya tribes also, Which people knew some kind of dental implants for thousands of years, where a lower jaw of a young Mayan woman was found, replaced by a piece of shell resembling the shape of the teeth, So we can say that the Mayan people have also known dental implants but primitive and simple to fit their knowledge at that time.
Zahrawi – the year 1013 AD – had Description of dental implants method, similar attempts were also made in Japan and Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, dental implants have developed with time of until – Grin Field – in 1913 published the first scientific book on organ transplantation, explaining the process of dental implants, The theoretical research on synostosis and sub-peritoneal agriculture was then improved, In 1947, science developed and a stainless steel spiral implant was made, However, all these previous experiments did not reach the method and the metal which is combined with the human bone, Until the long historical path ended with the discovery of Titanium metal that positively reacted with human tissues by the Swiss researcher Bernanke in 1982. The scientist who was considered a pioneer in dental implants science in the world, where he achieved a great scientific discovery by accident, while doing research on the wounds healing, using live rabbits to study the biology of bones, In which he installed microscopic chambers in the rabbits bones using Titanium bolts, a strong, non-corrosive light metal. When he tried several months later to remove these bolts of the bone, he was unable to do so because of the full synostosis with Titanium. 15-year of research, he has come to a conclusion that bone can cohere to Titanium with a high degree of success under appropriate and controlled conditions, Titanium did not cause any infections in the tissues adjacent to the bone and was not rejected by the natural bone. Bernmark named his discovery of this name – synostosis – and in 1965 he made his first successful transplant on a Swedish patient – who had no teeth – and the result was greatly successful.
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The number of used implantations has increased ten times more in the United States from 1983 to 2002, increasing as years go by, exceeding the value of implants in the United States in 2007, to more than 750 million dollars, which is a small number for some European countries. Dental implant prices are still rising until today.
With dental technology, dental implants have become the best choice for missing teeth, this is the most successful method today because it does not affect the teeth and surrounding tissues in any way. Dental implants compensate the missing tooth roots by using pure titanium support. The doctor first performs a complete examination of the patient’s mouth, much like routine examinations. In addition to jaws CT scan and panorama, as well as blood tests to reveal calcium and vitamin D level.
Dental implants have many conditions to be successful and the patient who wants to have dental implants must meet these conditions.
- The patient should be free from serious diseases affecting bone and gum healing, such as advanced cases of immunodeficiency diseases, bone, and bloody disorders.
- The patient should be free from diseases that affect the condition of bones in general, such as advanced cases of diabetes and osteoporosis.
- Having an appropriate amount of jaw bone, which is a functional type of bone, which erodes at the loss of tooth so, in order to ensure the success of the process, the missing bone must replace, and then complete the stages of dental implants.
- Ensure that there is a distance between the wanted bone for implantation and between the nasal cavities and jaw nerves, a task evaluated by the professional doctor through radiation and blood testing.
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Stages of dental implants
Dental implants are performed in many stages:
- The first stage is to prepare the appropriate place for tooth implanting where the implants are made of pure Titanium metal in the bone of the jaw where the tooth is lost.
- The second stage is where the bone is fully adhesion to the implant, this stage is called, synostosis, which takes a long time. The implantation takes six months for the upper jaw and three months for the lower jaw.
- The third Stage: which is the final stage, where the final formulation of dental implants is done, which includes a number of sessions to do the final combination of oral editions and its final fixation.